Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter and dancer. Dubbed the "King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century and one of the greatest entertainers of all time. Jackson's contributions to music, dance, and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades.The eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records. In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music. His music videos, including those for "Beat It", "Billie Jean", and "Thriller" from his 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool. Their popularity helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Jackson's 1987 album Bad produced the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles "I Just Can't Stop Loving You", "Bad", "The Way You Make Me Feel", "Man in the Mirror", and "Dirty Diana", becoming the first album to have five number-one singles in the nation. He continued to innovate with videos such as "Black or White" and "Scream" throughout the 1990s, and forged a reputation as a touring artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized a number of complicated dance techniques, such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name. His distinctive sound and style has influenced numerous artists of various genres.
Jackson is the third-best-selling music artist of all time (behind the Beatles and Elvis Presley), with estimated sales of over 350 million records worldwide. Jackson won hundreds of awards, making him the most awarded recording artist in the history of popular music. He is one of the few artists to have been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, and was also inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Dance Hall of Fame as the only dancer from pop and rock music. His other achievements include multiple Guinness world records including the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time, 13 Grammy Awards, the Grammy Legend Award, the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, 26 American Music Awards—more than any other artist—including the "Artist of the Century", 13 number-one singles in the US during his solo career—more than any other male artist in the Hot 100 era. Thriller is the best-selling album of all time, with estimated sales of 66 million copies worldwide. Jackson's other albums, including Off the Wall (1979), Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991), and HIStory (1995), also rank among the world's best-selling albums. Jackson is also remembered for his philanthropy and pioneering efforts in charitable fundraising in the entertainment industry. He traveled the world attending events honoring his humanitarianism, and, in 2000, Guinness World Records recognized him for supporting 39 charities, more than any other entertainer.Jackson became a figure of controversy in the late 1980s due to his changing appearance, his relationships and behavior. In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend; the case led to an investigation but was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount in 1994. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges after the jury found him not guilty on all counts. In 2009, while preparing for his comeback concert series, This Is It, Jackson died of acute propofol and benzodiazepine intoxication, after suffering from cardiac arrest. The Los Angeles County Coroner ruled his death a homicide, and his personal physician, Conrad Murray, was convicted of involuntary manslaughter and incarcerated. Jackson's death triggered a global outpouring of grief, and a live broadcast of his public memorial service was viewed around the world. In 2014, Jackson became the first artist in history to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades. In 2016, Jackson's estate earned $825 million, the highest yearly amount ever recorded by Forbes.