Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, and dancer. Dubbed the "King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest entertainers in the history of music. Through stage and video performances, he popularized complicated dance techniques such as the moonwalk, to which he gave the name. His sound and style have influenced artists of various genres. Jackson's contributions to music, dance, and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades.
The eighth child of the Jackson family, Jackson made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. Jackson began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, and rose to solo stardom with his fifth studio album Off the Wall (1979) during the peak of the disco era. By the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music. His music videos, including those for "Beat It", "Billie Jean", and "Thriller" from his sixth studio album Thriller (1982), are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool. Jackson's prominence propelled him and the television channel MTV into cultural phenomenons of 1980s pop culture. At the 1984 Grammy Awards, Thriller won a record-breaking eight Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year. Jackson continued to innovate with videos including "Leave Me Alone" and "Smooth Criminal" from Bad (1987), "Black or White" and "Remember the Time" from Dangerous (1991), "Scream" from HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I (1995) and "Ghosts" from the remix album Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix (1997). With songs such as "Man in the Mirror", "Black or White", "Heal the World", "Earth Song" and "They Don't Care About Us", Jackson's music emphasized racial integration, environmentalism and fighting against prejudice and injustice.
Starting in the late 1980s, Jackson became a figure of controversy and speculation due to his changing appearance, relationships, behavior and lifestyle. In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend. The lawsuit was settled out of court, and Jackson was not indicted. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges. In 2009, while preparing for a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, Jackson died from an overdose of sedatives administered by his personal physician, Conrad Murray. Fans around the world expressed their grief, and Jackson's public memorial service was broadcast live. In August 2009, the Los Angeles County Coroner ruled that Jackson's death was a homicide, and Murray was charged with involuntary manslaughter in February 2010. Nine years later, the documentary Leaving Neverland, which detailed posthumous allegations of child sexual abuse, led to a media backlash against Jackson.
Jackson is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, with estimated sales of over 350 million records worldwide. Thriller is the best-selling album of all time, with estimated sales of 66 million copies worldwide, while his other albums, Off the Wall (1979), Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991), and HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I (1995), also rank among the best-selling of all time. In addition, Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix (1997) is the best-selling remix album of all time. Bad was the first album to produce five Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles. Jackson had 13 Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, more than any other male artist in the Hot 100 era, and was also the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades. The most awarded artist in the history of popular music, he received 13 Grammy Awards, the Grammy Legend Award, Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, 6 Brit Awards, a Golden Globe Award, and 39 Guinness World Records, including the "Most Successful Entertainer of All Time". His other achievements include an induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice and being the only recording artist to have been inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame. In 2016, his estate earned $825 million, the highest yearly amount for a celebrity ever recorded by Forbes.