Red Hot Chili Peppers (commonly abbreviated as RHCP) are an American rock band formed in Los Angeles in 1983. Their music incorporates elements of alternative rock, funk, punk rock and psychedelic rock. The band comprises vocalist Anthony Kiedis, bassist Flea, drummer Chad Smith, and guitarist John Frusciante. With over 80 million records sold worldwide, Red Hot Chili Peppers are one of the best-selling bands of all time. They are the most successful band in the history of alternative rock radio, with the records for most number-one singles (13), most cumulative weeks at number one (85) and most top-ten songs (25) on the Billboard Alternative Songs chart. They have won six Grammy Awards, and in 2012 were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
Red Hot Chili Peppers were formed in Los Angeles by Kiedis, Flea, guitarist Hillel Slovak and drummer Jack Irons. Because of commitments to other bands, Slovak and Irons did not play on the band's 1984 self-titled debut album; instead, the album featured Jack Sherman on guitar and Cliff Martinez on drums. However, Slovak rejoined shortly after its release and performed on the albums Freaky Styley (1985) and The Uplift Mofo Party Plan (1987), the latter of which saw a reunion of the original lineup. Slovak died of a drug overdose on June 25, 1988; devastated, Irons left the band.
With new recruits Frusciante and Smith, Red Hot Chili Peppers recorded Mother's Milk (1989) and their first major commercial success, Blood Sugar Sex Magik (1991). Frusciante was uncomfortable with the newfound popularity and left abruptly during the 1992 Blood Sugar Sex Magik tour. His replacement, Dave Navarro, played on the sixth Red Hot Chili Peppers album, One Hot Minute (1995). Although commercially successful, the album failed to match the critical or popular acclaim of Blood Sugar Sex Magik, selling less than half as many copies.
Navarro was fired from Red Hot Chili Peppers in 1998, and Frusciante rejoined. Their seventh album, Californication (1999), became their biggest commercial success, with 16 million copies sold worldwide. Their next albums, By the Way (2002) and Stadium Arcadium (2006), were also successful. After the Stadium Arcadium tour, Red Hot Chili Peppers went on an extended hiatus. Frusciante left for the second time in 2009 to focus on his solo career; he was replaced by Josh Klinghoffer, who appeared on the albums I'm with You (2011) and The Getaway (2016) before Frusciante rejoined again in 2019.